According to 2016 estimates by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), urban India generates 141064 metric tons per day (TPD) of municipal solid waste (MSW) every day with the organic fraction in the range of 40-60%. Per capita MSW generated has been estimated to be growing at a rate of 1.33% per annum. Increasing income and changes in consumption patterns have led to an increase in per-capita waste generation from 0.44 kg/day in 2001 to 0.5 kg/day in 2011.
CPCB also estimated MSW collection efficiency as 90% in 2016, and of this only 27% was treated. Only about 4515 TPD was disposed on scientific landfills. Remaining was disposed in landfills or open dumps. Uncontrolled MSW disposal in India is a large source of GHG emissions. As of 2000, the municipal solid waste sector accounted for approximately10, 252 Gg carbon-dioxide (CO2) equivalent in GHG emissions per year (GoI, 2012). Solid waste sector is envisaged to contribute 17,938Gg CO2eq GHG emissions in 2021primarily from methane emissions. Improper waste management practices and inadequate waste handling facilities contribute to these emissions. For example, lack of engineered sanitary landfills means that organic waste decomposes in anaerobic conditions, producing methane; and occasional fires in such dumps and open burning of uncollected waste in residential areas leads to black carbon emissions. Thus, India has a huge potential to reduce methane emissions through landfill gas capture at large dumpsites and landfills; and processing organic waste through anaerobic digestion and composting. Open burning of waste is a significant challenge in the region. Improved waste management practices in general will reduce the need for waste to be disposed by burning, thus reducing emissions of black carbon.
Specifically, the cities’ network within India has been developed to support the cities to develop work plans to improve solid waste management. Presently, the network is working intensively with two Municipal Corporations—East Delhi and Coimbatore.
- Assist Coimbatore and East Delhi to develop work plans to improve solid waste management and reduce SLCP emissions
- Develop a focused network to foster outreach to municipalities. TERI will conduct workshops and webinars on various stages of waste management, and organize site visits for the cities in the network.
TERI’s staff possesses rich and varied experience in the waste and other sectors in India and abroad. TERI has been providing assistance on a range of activities to public, private, and institutional clients. TERI has 524 research professionals from field of sciences, engineering, economics, energy management and other relevant fields. TERI staff’s educational distribution is about 12 percent PhD, 56 percent post graduates and 32 percent college graduates. Specialization wise TERI’s staff is about 21 % scientists, 18 % engineers, 16 % biotechnologists, 8 % economists, 6 % IT professionals, 6 % energy management professionals, 5 % sociologists and 20 % other specialists. TERI has a strong presence in local, national, and international forums.
TERI has expertise in the field of solid waste management, wastewater treatment, landfill gas management, and GHG emission inventories; and has extensive experience on policy and institutional issues. In India, TERI’s projects in the waste sector cover a range of topics and cities, including::
- Landfill gas capture and utilization from waste disposal sites through the use of clean energy technology in Delhi
- Organic waste treatment projects in many cities across India by designing small scale bio-digesters
- Application of integrated MSW approaches in Delhi and Mumbai
- Quantification of GHG mitigation potential for various development initiatives in India (e.g., JnNURM, Swachh Bharat Mission, Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), and Smart Cities Initiative)
- TERI’s recent relevant international funded project experience includes conducting studies for managing post-consumer Tetra-Pak cartons management for cities in South Asia which included Delhi, Lucknow, Srinagar, Jammu, Kolkata, Guwahati, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Pune, Hyderabad, Nagpur, Bangalore, and Chennai.
Abt Associates has supported the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its role as a lead partner in the CCAC MSWI nearly since the initiative’s inception. On EPA’s behalf, Abt has been working with stakeholders in several cities to build capacity to improve waste management in ways that help reduce SLCP emissions. The cities that Abt has supported include: Accra, Ghana; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Amman, Jordan; Dhaka, Bangladesh; Jakarta, Indonesia; East Delhi and Coimbatore, India; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In these cities, Abt Associates has typically assisted EPA in working with local stakeholders to collect and evaluate data on waste management activities; analyzing waste management practices and opportunities to mitigate SLCP emissions; developing city-specific workplans for improving solid waste management and reducing SLCP emissions; planning and facilitating capacity building trainings and workshops; and enabling the dissemination of best practices through networking and city exchanges.
The Climate and Clean Air Trust Fund, established in 2012, is administered by UN Environment (UNEP). The Trust Fund supports projects approved by the Coalition, activities of the Coalition Secretariat, and administrative support for Coalition meetings.